An Army veteran living with disability, she could not get this surgical care from her usual provider, the Department of Veterans Affairs, which does not pay for or perform gender transition-related surgeries.
Stark calls Wisconsin home but mostly lives out of a suitcase, maintaining a busy schedule as an escort, adult film performer, photographer and phone sex operator. But now, her career is coming to an abrupt end after a bill passed by Congress in March. Senate approves anti-sex-trafficking bill.
I just call it the end of my career, essentially," she said. The bill, called the Allow States and Victims to Fight Online Sex Trafficking Act , prompted the online bulletin board Craigslist to shut down its personal ads two days after its passage. The bill was directed against sex trafficking, not the volitional career in sex work to which Stark credits her own survival. Craigslist is an online classifieds site, divided by city or geographic area, through which users advertise a range of goods, services, jobs and housing.
Now awaiting the president's signature, the bill paves the way for sex trafficking survivors to hold websites accountable for "knowingly" facilitating their abuse. The legislation chips away at part of a act that gave a broad layer of immunity to online companies, such as Facebook or Twitter, from being held liable for what their users post. The company did not immediately respond to a request for further comment.
Though the bill aims to crack down on sex trafficking and protect survivors, critics say it threatens the lives and livelihoods of sex workers who choose to work in the profession by encouraging websites like Craigslist to censor their content -- pushing some sex workers back out to the street and removing their tools for finding and screening clients. Some sex workers are already losing their housing as a direct result of forums like Craigslist personals going dark, according to Christa B.
Daring, board president of the Sex Workers Outreach Project. Many pay rent week-to-week and struggle to feed themselves and their children, they said. Craigslist was the first site Stark used to transition away from the street, where she relied on her military training to make "snap judgments" to stay out of harm's way, dodge potentially dangerous clients and avoid getting arrested -- again.
Even with the advantage of her military training, however, "most often, physical appearance and demeanor really don't tell you a whole lot," she said. Many sex workers run background checks on clients, communicate through online forums and check "bad date lists," which sex workers create to warn others about hostile clients. Stark also has a mandatory hour waiting period before she agrees to meet clients, giving her time to check for criminal records and other warning signs.
She learned ways to stay safe and grow her business from other sex workers online, some of whom keep blogs. We can mentor each other. We can support each other. We can screen our clients," said Akynos. Bolstering these concerns about sex worker safety is a recent research paper -- still under peer review -- that suggests Craigslist's "erotic" services section may be linked to a drop in the female homicide rate.
Prostitutes speak out against Senate health bill. I don't think Waco had one. But Craigslist didn't launch this section in every city at the same time. Cunningham's team found that cities where Craigslist launched the section for erotic services reduced their female homicide rate by up to However, it is not possible to say what portion of those homicide victims were sex workers, Cunningham said, nor is it possible to prove that Craigslist was directly responsible for the dip.
This reduction wasn't seen for other types of homicides Cunningham analyzed. The research gives quantitative insight into what is likely to happen in the wake of the new bill, he said. Some of them go back to working for a pimp. Some of them, maybe they advertise on the dark web. Limited information exists on the number of sex workers in the United States, including illegal acts of prostitution. Many definitions of sex work include a broader variety of services beyond prostitution, such as "erotic performances.
Akynos expects that black sex workers will be some of the hardest hit by the anti-trafficking legislation. She recently founded a group called the Black Sex Worker Collective to "help facilitate sex workers who may be looking to exit the business, as well as support those that are in the business.
We're already criminalized in so many more ways than white people are, period," said Akynos, who specified that she was not talking about sex work alone. What is going to happen to us as a whole? The bill's supporters, including 97 senators who voted for the legislation, say it will give law enforcement tools in the fight against sex trafficking and enable survivors and their families to seek justice in the court system. The bill followed a two-year Senate investigation into online sex trafficking on the classified ads site Backpage.
The investigation, led by bill co-sponsors Sens. This isn't the first time that Craigslist has removed sections, says Chelsea Reynolds , a professor at California State University who wrote her dissertation on the media portrayal of Craigslist. In , Craigslist dumped their "erotic services" section after pressure from Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan, who called it "nothing more than an Internet brothel.
The data, which was widely picked up by the media, turned out to be false, as the Village Voice later uncovered. By that time, however, it was too late for Craigslist's adult service providers.
In reality, the vast majority of people who use Craigslist personals aren't doing anything illegal, Reynolds says.
While the media tends to push stories about sex trafficking victims , when Reynolds looked at the data, she found that "Most people on the site are just exploring their sexuality. These bills get pushed over moralistic and paternalistic concerns about young girls' welfare, but we need to remember that there are many, many people who use these sections responsibly. There are also many, many people who enter sex work willingly, and these laws really hurt people like that.
Mistress Matisse , a Seattle-area sex worker, agrees. It's the government telling you want you can and can't discuss online. No one wants children to be trafficked, but it does not happen as much as they say it happens and shutting down personals is not going to make it go away.
An earlier version of this post incorrectly stated that Missed Connections was dead, when in reality it was just moved.. Craigslist has a M4M section where users can post what they are looking for sexually in hopes to find other strangers with shared interests. Some of them go back to working for a pimp. Stars Screen Binge Culture Media. But Craigslist didn't launch this section in every city at the same time. They'd rather say that this is mainstream, run-of-the-mill, adult material, not pornography, craigslist casual adultservices, because they know that 'pornography' came from two Greek words, 'porne' and 'graphos,' which literally translated means 'the writing of prostitutes. Craigslist was the first site Stark used to transition away from the street, where she relied craigslist casual adultservices her military training to make "snap judgments" to stay out of harm's way, dodge potentially dangerous clients and avoid getting arrested -- . Anti-trafficking organizations around the world. This reduction wasn't seen for other types of homicides Cunningham analyzed. The following year, under similar pressure, the company removed its "adult services" sectionreplacing it with the word "censored. Out calls craigslist male escort Perth a day after the Senate passed a highly controversial anti-sex trafficking billCraigslist shut down its personals section, including its forums for friendship, casual encounters. Though the bill aims to crack down on sex trafficking and protect survivors, critics say it threatens the lives and livelihoods of sex workers who choose to work in the profession by encouraging websites like Craigslist to censor their content -- pushing some sex workers back out to the street and removing their tools for finding and screening clients.